Wall Street Times

A Dire Forecast: Earth’s Future with Pangea Ultima

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In a groundbreaking study, scientists from the University of Bristol have unveiled a grim vision of Earth’s distant future. Their research, based on cutting-edge supercomputer climate models, suggests that the formation of a new supercontinent, Pangea Ultima, in approximately 250 million years, could have catastrophic consequences for all life on the planet, including humans and mammals.

The Supercontinent’s Harsh Climate

The Triple Whammy Effect

The study predicts that once Pangea Ultima emerges, the planet will experience extreme heat, aridity, and inhospitable conditions. This dire forecast stems from what researchers refer to as the “triple whammy effect.” This phenomenon combines three critical factors that would dramatically alter Earth’s climate:

  • Continentality Effect: With the merging of continents, Pangea Ultima would witness widespread temperatures ranging from 40 to 50 degrees Celsius (104 to 122 degrees Fahrenheit), with even more severe daily temperature fluctuations. Humans and many other species would face challenges in regulating their body temperatures through sweating due to these extreme conditions.
  • Increased Solar Intensity: As Pangea Ultima forms, the sun’s intensity would also rise, emitting more energy and further warming the planet. This increased solar radiation would exacerbate the already scorching conditions.
  • Elevated CO2 Levels: The study reveals that the supercontinent’s emergence would lead to more frequent volcanic eruptions, releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This would contribute to the planet’s greenhouse effect, trapping heat and causing a dramatic rise in temperatures.

Challenges for Mammals

The relentless heat, coupled with high humidity levels, would create an environment devoid of essential resources such as food and water for mammals. The consequences would be dire, posing insurmountable challenges for survival.

Habitability on Pangea Ultima

According to the research, only a fraction of Pangea Ultima, estimated at around 8% to 16% of its landmass, would remain habitable for mammals. This grim outlook emphasizes the need for long-term planning and adaptation strategies.

Elevated CO2 Levels and the Urgency of Action

The study also suggests that carbon dioxide levels could potentially double their current levels, assuming immediate cessation of fossil fuel consumption. However, experts warn that without prompt action, these alarming CO2 levels could become a reality much sooner.

Implications for Our Time

While the study focuses on a distant future, its findings hold a crucial message for the present. Human-caused climate change is already causing severe consequences worldwide. The study’s co-author, Eunice Lo, emphasizes that it is essential to address our current climate crisis promptly.


The research conducted by the University of Bristol paints a stark picture of Earth’s potential future under the formation of Pangea Ultima. This triple whammy of extreme heat, intensified solar radiation, and elevated CO2 levels poses immense challenges for all life forms. It serves as a stark reminder of the urgency of addressing our current climate crisis and striving for net-zero emissions to secure a sustainable future.